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At the beginning of the XIX century in England and Scotland game in abundance vodilas, and hunting was the sport, a way to produce food. Retrievers won fame because there was a need for a medium-size dog to hunt upland and waterfowl.
The most complete evidence of the formation of the breed golden retriever found in Jaeger books that were s1835po! 890 per year in the name of the Lord Tvidmauta Gvisekan (Scotland). They were published in the magazine Country Life in 1952, when the great-nephew of Lord Tvidmauta – sixth graph Ilchestera, a historian and a hunter – made available to the general public papers of his ancestor.
Now we know that in the formation of a golden retriever involved Tweed Water Spaniel, and the small type of Newfoundland. Early retrievers crossed with other breeds – Irish setters, water spaniels. Toe game with the water was very important.
Lord Tvidmaut bought his first Yellow Retriever Noosa in Brighton in 1865. They said that Nous was grown on the estate of Count Chichester. In the photograph the dog, dated 1870, we see a large golden retriever with wavy hair. In some paintings on display at the British Museum, shows the dogs of the same type. Artists have often painted portraits of lords and their families, representing a number of pet dogs with them.
On the banks of the River Tweed, where there are named Lord Tvidmauta, those years were distributed Tweed Water Spaniels, used for toe game. They came from big water dogs, which over the years grew on the coast of Britain. According to Dalziel, author of “British Dogs” (1881), Tweed Water Spaniels were long-tailed dogs, light-colored liver with curly hair, leaves, however, the impression that they were originated from the hairless dogs, with heavy ( as a setter), fleshy ears, with slight feathering on the ears and front legs, conical head and droops slightly lips. Although this type of water spaniel has long disappeared, its influence on the breed golden retriever can not be overestimated. Jaeger books, which were conducted in Gvisekane report that approximately 1867-1868 years Nusa tied with liver colored female Tweed Water Spaniel named Belle. In this litter was four puppies: Crocus, Primrose, Ada and Kauslip. Last again mated with male Tweed Water Spaniel, and the left of the litter puppy-bitch in turn crossed with a descendant of Ada. Puppies yellow color inserts in the stud book
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In subsequent matings included an Irish setter and another Tweed Water Spaniel. Apparently used, and Bloodhound. Maintain studbook, not often practiced in those days, played a role in the development of the breed golden retriever. The records of these books have repeatedly found nicknames Noosa and Kauslip.
Yellow or golden, retriever has gained popularity in England by the end of XIX century, and his first victory on the field trials, refers to 1904. Golden Retriever, first introduced in England in the dog show “Crystal Palace” in 1908, was recorded in the lists as a “smooth coat (golden). At the following exhibitions in 1909 and 1913 he was again registered as a smooth coat, and in 1913 he was in a separate group in color and put a gold. Enthusiasts breed of organized club golden retriever (English). In the 90 years of the last century, the golden retrievers were already known in the United States and in Canada. From the UK and Canada, these dogs were in the East and West Coast of the USA in the 1920 and 1930.
First golden retrievers registered in the American Kennel Club in November 1925. Before, if writing about them, and appeared in the AKC studbook, the total group of retrievers with a special description of the color. In Canada, the golden retrievers have identified a separate breed in 1927. The breed has spread to the United States in 1930 and 1940 (American Club Golden Retrievers was established in 1938.) Dogs mainly used for hunting, although some were bred just for show. Breeders put a lot of effort and patience to get a strong, beautiful dog, skillfully fowl, which in those years vodilos in the set. Over time, more and more breeders began to exhibit their dogs in the ring. Mostly prefer darker dogs, but there are a light golden color. And the dark and bright dogs participated in field trials in England and at exhibitions in Scotland and England. The same happened and is happening today in the United States and Canada
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Connoisseurs have always valued in the breed golden retriever in the first balance, a strong constitution, the right moves, the ability to training and character.
In 1936 in England and Scotland, the breed standard was revised for approval by the dark and light colors. To meet the growing demand in America, England and Scotland exported more and more dogs of both colors. Although some of the light-golden retrievers and have won the show in the U.S., they are not very popular among Americans. Perhaps, these champions should be regarded as exceptions, because they won in spite of their bright color, due to other outstanding qualities. In addition, this color is not too fond of hunters and judges at field trials. Clubs golden retrievers in the United States and other countries are actively promoting the fact that the breed is maintained and secured their best qualities. Today, golden retrievers success at field trials, working on the hunt, participate in competitions in dog training, serve as agents of the Blind. And many happy and kept as pets. Since the Retrievers have excellent instincts, they are used as sniffer dogs and a sniffer-dogs, such as drug detection. All three dogs, who first received the title of ‘Champion’ ACC on training (competition held in 1977) were golden retriever. The first was a female, two others – males. And the females, and males work fine for field trials and hunting. Dimensions golden retriever, his easygoing nature and a desire to be useful to the owner are responsible for the extraordinary popularity of this breed
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Golden Retriever. Official Standard
Approved October 13, 1981 Revised August 18, 1990
General characteristics. Strong and active dog, harmoniously combined, not coarse, friendly and even-tempered.
In assessing the focus should be on appearance as a whole – a balance of addition, movement and fitness for purpose dog. Any deviation from this standard should be considered a fault and the seriousness of which depends on the degree of inadequacy of the breed or temperament.
Height, weight, proportion, composition. Height: Males – 58.5 – 61 cm, females – 54.5 – 57 cm
The length of humeroscapular joint to point of buttock slightly longer than the height at the withers, the index of prolixity – 12:11 (PO). Weight: Dogs 29.5 – 34 kg, females: 25 – 29,5 kg.
Faults: Height at the withers is above or below specified within 2,5 cm
Disqualifying faults: the deviation of the height at the withers from those in the standard by more than 2,5 cm
The head is proportional to a broad, slightly convex from all angles, forehead and occiput not be issued. The transition from forehead to muzzle clearly marked, but not sharp. The muzzle is deep and wide, at length almost equal to the length of the skull. Nasal bridge is straight when viewed from the side and top seems a little deeper and wider at the base than at the end. Lips tight, not raw. Removal of whiskers is permitted but not recommended. Eyes friendly and attentive, medium size, with dark, tight fitting lids, are widely spaced and rather sunken. The preferred color – dark brown, brown permitted. When looking forward whites of the eyes and third eyelid is not visible. Ears are relatively short, placed above the eye line and brushed backwards, fitting closely to the cheeks. Stretched forth his ear should be ignored. Nose black or brownish-black, changing its color to a little lighter in the cold weather permitted. Scissor bite, where the outer surface of the lower incisors adjacent to the inner surface of the upper. Full set of teeth.
Flaws: obliquely, or close-set, triangular eyes; nizkopostavlennye ears, like Beagles, pink or not pigmented nose; violation ryadnosti in the arrangement of cutters or bite, obvious gaps between the teeth.
ELIMINATING FAULTS: Overshot or undershot. Removed from the ring to the dog with functional disorders of eyelids
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Neck, Topline, Body. The neck is medium length, smoothly merges with the shoulder, strengthening the impression of power and strength. Folds of skin on the neck are missing. Topline strong and straight from the withers to slightly sloping croup and a rack, and in motion. Housing well-balanced, compact and deep. The chest is deep to the elbow, the width of about a man’s fist. Costal part of a long, prominent, but not barrel shaped, with well-developed head-on. Loin short, muscular, wide and deep, the belly is slightly tucked. The tail is thick and muscular at the base, is a continuation of the croup. Tail tip reaches the hock but not below.
In normal condition the dog’s tail is at or slightly above the back line, but throws over the back and not running out between his legs.
Flaws: bent, narrow, sway back, straight or sharply angled croup barrel, narrow, small chest, marked fry.
Forequarters muscular, good harmony with the Hindquarters and freedom of movement. Shoulder blades are long, sloping, the upper edges of the blades at the withers converge fairly closely. The shoulders are about the same length as the shoulder blade. Elbows are at the withers and tight prilezhat to the body. Forearms are straight, with a strong but not coarse bone. Pasterns short, strong, slightly sloping, with no signs of weakness. Fifth fingers on the front legs can be removed, but usually they are left. Feet medium size, round and compact with toes collected and thickly padded. Excessively long hair on the feet can be trimmed to show natural size and contour of the feet.
Flaws: outwards or clubfoot.
Hindquarters. Croup is wide, well muscled, in profile, seems slightly tilted at an angle of about 30 ° to the horizontal. In the natural stance hip articulated with the pelvis at an angle of about 90 °. Angulation in stifles and hocks sufficiently pronounced, hocks low omitted metatarsus short, strong. Paws – as in forequarters. Limb when viewed from behind straight.
Faults: Cow hocks limbs, straight hocks, saber fencers of limbs.
Coat a thick, water-repellent, with a dense undercoat. Guard hairs strong and resilient, but not rude and not silky, tight to the body, can be straight or wavy. On the neck and shoulders natural collar at the back of the front legs, abdomen and chest hair is slightly longer and more abundant than on the front of the neck, back, thighs and tail suspension. Hair on head, paws and front legs are short and smooth. Paws and too “unruly” hair can be trimmed, but the natural look of wool and silhouette clipping can not change.
Vices: an overly long or soft coat, open rubashka1.
Color saturated, bright golden of various shades. Tow can be lighter.
Any white markings, except for some hair on his chest be considered a fault or defect in proportion to the value of the marks. Graying and whitening of hair associated with aging, the disadvantage is not considered. Clarified in comparison with color areas are permitted, they should not be confused with white markings. Too light or too dark ground color is undesirable. You should not judge too harshly bright puppies, whose color over time is going to be darker.
Open shirt – Upright wool.
Vices: black or any color other than gold.
Movement at a trot free, smooth, powerful and well coordinated with the further away the limbs. When viewed from any position of limbs do not leave any outward or inward, feet do not interbreed and do not hinder movement. With increasing speed, the legs move under the body, closer to the center of gravity. In a move recommended dog show on a free rein to give her the opportunity to move naturally.
Character and temperament. The character of a friendly and reliable. Selfish ambition or aggressiveness toward other dogs and people in normal situations or unreasoning fearfulness (cowardice), or nervousness are not typical for a golden retriever. Such deviations must be considered and evaluated commensurate with the extent of exposure